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The invention of the Ukrainian students one of the best, «TIME» version

gloves for enable to talk from Ukrainian students

Students Computer Academy “SHAG” won the Imagine Cup 2012 in Sydney on July 10 held a truly epochal event for the computer industry in Ukraine – the first time in the history of the Ukrainians won one of the most prestigious competitions of IT-technology areas – Microsoft Imagine Cup. Team quadSquad, composed of students of Donetsk Computer Academy “SHAG”, won the most difficult category – software development (Software Design), which has struggled for more than 70 teams.
They presented the world his socially oriented project called Enable Talk.
Enable Talk according to the magazine «TIME» included in the list “Best Inventions of the Year 2012” along with The Curiosity Rover, Google Glass, self-inflating tires and many others.
It aims at improving the communication of people with limited hearing and presents by glove equipped with a large number of sensors, such as sensors bend the fingers, a pair of accelerometers, gyroscope and compass, which allows you to gather information on the situation in the hands of the space in the future to transform a gesture to speech.
The software part of the development (based on Windows Phone 7 / Windows 8) can receive information from sensors gloves and continuous transformation in the audio signal. The information received through Bluetooth is transmitted to the smartphone and after fast processing gestures sounded voice. This invention will help deaf and dumb people to communicate more easily and conveniently. Also glove equipped with solar panels that optimizes its use.
enable to talk Ukrainian development

During the presentation, the team demonstrated the possibility of gloves, talking to the audience in sign language that is instantly translated into voice. All those present, including the members of the jury, said that they have not seen anything like this before and were also highly appreciated the ability Ukrainians not only to program, but also to solder chips with their own hands.

To develop their project folks spent more than six months, it is expected that such a glove would be worth only $ 200.
Materials taken from the site: «EnableTalk»

The Orphanage by Serhiy Zhadan: A 4.4-Stars Novel Worth Your Time?

the orphanage by Serghiy Zhadan review

Serhiy Zhadan’s The Orphanage is the story of a teacher’s life in the conditions of Russian war in Ukraine, Donbas. It tells the story of Pasha, a local teacher of the Ukrainian language who is in the epicenter of the war. Sergei Zhadan’s novel was recognized as one of the best books of 2017 and was included in the short list of “BBC Book of the Year 2017”.

The Orphanage Novel Cover

Although the novel tackles some heavy themes, its blend of relatability, mysticism, and thoughtfulness strikes a balance, making it a pleasurable read. However, some readers may find that certain elements of the story require a higher level of patience and concentration.

Bottom Line

If you’re looking for an enriching and captivating literary experience, The Orphanage is a novel worth considering.

With its gripping narrative and profound insights, this book will challenge and inspire you in equal measure.

Click here to purchase The Orphanage and immerse yourself in this absorbing tale today!

The Orphanage: A Novel – Overview

If you’re looking for a gripping and thought-provoking read, The Orphanage is that novel. This captivating story holds an impressive 4.4-star rating on Amazon, backed by 238 enthusiastic readers just like you. Published as part of The Margellos World Republic of Letters series, this book twists and turns through a captivating narrative journey.

Briefly, The Orphanage is the book about russian war in Ukraine and, because this topic causes too much pain, horror and night screams, not too many people are reading them. But this one is awaited for you! It will jumped into your arms and did not let go until the last page.

This story is about an ordinary language teacher named Pasha. Pasha is the same “little person” who does not decide anything. What’s more, he doesn’t even decide which side he is on, who for him is “ours” and who is “others”. This is unnecessary, for what and why should something be decided at all?

All Pasha does is live his gray life, work somewhere, earn something, and of course does not affect anything, ignoring the lion’s share of what is happening around. Pasha has a nephew who, unfortunately, is in a boarding school, but almost for the first time in his entire life, the main character decides something, namely to go and take the god.

He doesn’t even know that his path is literally leading to the hottest spot, because Pasha doesn’t watch the news, he doesn’t need it. This book is living proof that sometimes it doesn’t matter what character the main character has, what he does and says, because the very atmosphere and language of the author drives you to read further.

If you look for descriptive words, only “viscosity”, “sticky fear” and “changes” come to mind, and every picture described in the novel burned brightly in front of your eyes, giving no chance to look away. Three days. That’s how long the reader will spend with the character. That is how much we will take from the life of a person forced to experience the war on his own skin.

Now the closest thought to me is that any person who does not have his own family, country and Motherland is literally the same frightened and very lonely figure from the boarding school. And its stench, unfortunately, still lingers among us.

Top Features

The Orphanage, part of the Margellos World Republic of Letters series, is a captivating novel that has enthralled many readers. With a 4.4 rating based on 238 reviews, it’s clear that this book has made a significant impact.

One can credit the novel’s success to its well-structured 336 pages, keeping readers engaged without overstaying its welcome. The Orphanage is written in English, which ensures that a wide audience can appreciate its content.

Yale University Press, a reputable publisher, released the book on February 23, 2021, ensuring quality and careful attention to detail. Reading this paperback novel, one can’t help but appreciate the comfortable dimensions (5 x 0.81 x 7.75 inches) and lightweight (11.2 ounces), making it perfect for extended reading sessions.

The Orphanage: A Novel is a remarkable addition to the literary world, ticking all the right boxes in terms of content, presentation, and publisher credibility. For readers seeking enthralling and thought-provoking literature, this novel is definitely worth considering.

Engrossing Narrative

Ukrainian landscape disrupted by the shadow of russian military vehicles and smoke in the distance. Pasha from the Orphanage by Serghiy Zhadan depicted

The Orphanage, a novel set in the context of the Russian war in Ukrainian, captivates readers with its vivid portrayal of a man’s journey to retrieve his nephew from an orphanage amid chaos and danger. The quality of the storytelling shines through, with many reviewers expressing how deeply immersed they became in the tale. The character development is noteworthy as well, as we witness the main character’s transformation from a passive and unengaged individual to someone ready to face the world with determination and courage.

One drawback, though, is the occasional vagueness about the identity of the soldiers and other minor details in the narrative. Some readers might find this aspect challenging, but it might contribute to the novel’s surreal, otherworldly atmosphere, heightened by the current Russian war in Ukraine.

The Orphanage offers an engrossing narrative that takes readers on a thrilling, emotional journey through a war-torn city. Its thought-provoking prose and memorable characters make this book an unforgettable literary experience, even with some minor shortcomings.

Characteristic Prose

Zhadan describes so aptly, clearly and perfectly that all the cities, houses, people and the boarding school itself appear before the eyes. To be honest, sometimes it is even difficult to read due to the influx of emotions, worries and experiences. But this book is definitely worth reading. To avoid such a horror in the future, you need to know about it today and what leads to it.

Zhadan’s novel creates just such a combination: a compromise of banal maxims and psychologically reliable observations. What’s going on here is so much more important than any possible explanation that the explanations seem out of place. The obviousness of the explanations in the new prose scares Zhadan, to tell the truth, because life in Ukraine during the war years became deeper and more meaningful, and artistically more demanding than the literature of fiction.

Pros and Cons


The Orphanage novel has received a high rating of 4.4 out of 5 stars, indicating that the majority of readers found it to be engaging and well-written. Many appreciate its gripping narrative that follows the main character’s journey from being uninvolved in life to becoming an engaged adult amid a war-torn setting. The touching story of an uncle trying to bring his nephew home from an orphanage in a city under siege resonates with many readers and showcases the beauty and power of Ukrainian literature. Others found the prose to be outstanding, memorable, and thought-provoking, with a strong sense of originality in the similes and descriptions used.


However, some readers mentioned that despite its literary brilliance, certain elements of the book might not resonate with everyone. For example, the author’s vagueness regarding the soldiers’ identities and the specific setting can be confusing for some. Additionally, a few readers mentioned that while the translation successfully retains many of the original lyrical ideas, there might be a sense that a more authentic experience of the story can be achieved by reading it in the original language. Lastly, the basic premise of a man trying to get through a city under siege might not appeal to all audiences, as it may be a heavy and emotional experience for some.

The Orphanage: A Novel (The Margellos World Republic of Letters)
9.4/10 Our Score
  • Engaging Plot: The story is set amidst a war-torn Ukraine and follows the journey of a school teacher, Pasha, who risks his life to save his nephew in an orphanage. The plot is not only engaging but also thought-provoking.
  • Vivid Imagery: Zhadan’s writing style is rich with vivid imagery that brings the scenes to life. His descriptions are so detailed that readers can visualize the war-torn areas and feel the characters’ emotions.
  • Cultural Insight: The book provides deep insights into Ukrainian culture and history. It presents a unique blend of local folklore, music, and poetry, making it a valuable piece of Ukrainian literature.
  • Realistic Characters: The characters in the book are well-developed and realistic. Their struggles are relatable, which makes readers empathize with them.
  • Social Commentary: “The Orphanage” reflects on the harsh realities of war and its effect on common people. It is a poignant social commentary on the ongoing war in Ukraine.
  • Emotional Depth: The book has a deep emotional layer. It explores themes of family, love, sacrifice, and the human spirit’s resilience.

Customer Reviews

The Orphanage: A Novel has received a 4.4-star rating with 238 reviews from customers on Amazon. Readers find the book incredibly engaging and well-written, as the main character transitions from a disinterested individual to an active participant in life. Many reviewers mentioned being completely immersed in the story, highlighting its gripping nature throughout the chapters.

The novel takes place during a time of Russian military occupation in Ukraine. Its descriptive language and powerful writing style are appreciated by readers who find the prose to be outstanding, providing unique insight into the protagonist’s journey.

“The Orphanage” is a powerful and absorbing tale, offering a unique perspective on Ukrainian literature and a timely insight into the challenges faced in times of conflict. While it may not be perfect, its many positives are praised by numerous readers, making it worthy of consideration.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is the main protagonist in The Orphanage?

The main protagonist in “The Orphanage: A Novel” is Pasha, a middle-aged, single high school teacher who embarks on a perilous journey to rescue his nephew, Sasha, from an orphanage amidst war-torn Eastern Ukraine. The story revolves around Pasha’s experiences and transformation from an uninvolved individual to an engaged adult.

Are there any notable themes in The Orphanage?

“The Orphanage” explores several notable themes, including the power of human resilience, the harsh reality of war, and the difficulties of navigating life in difficult circumstances. Readers have praised the novel for its gripping storytelling, evocative atmosphere, and the light it sheds on the Ukrainian conflict, making it an immersive and thought-provoking read.

The novel also highlights the importance of family and human connections, as Pasha is driven by his deep desire to reunite with his nephew and provide him with a sense of stability in a chaotic world. The obstacles and challenges they go through together reveal the complexities of human relationships, the strength of the human spirit, and the power of determination in trying times.

In summary, “The Orphanage: A Novel” is an engaging, well-written literary work that provides a detailed and powerful insight into the lives of ordinary people caught in extraordinary circumstances. Readers are drawn into its unique prose and lyrical ideas, which capture the heart-wrenching realism of conflict and the need for hope, family, and human connection in difficult times.

Best universities in Ukraine for international students

Best universities in Ukraine for international students

Around 85,000 foreign students from 148 countries study in Ukraine, and half of them study in the Ukrainian language. Almost half are students from post-Soviet countries, but every year we can see an increasing number of students from India, Nigeria, and other African countries.

Why do foreigners still choose Ukrainian universities?

Many high-ranking officials in Asian and African countries were educated in Ukraine during the Soviet era
– Traditionally, since Soviet times, they know that Ukraine has had quality education, and many high-ranking officials in Asian and African countries received their education in Ukraine during Soviet times. They know that if they get a quality education, they can get a good job in their country. Also, the conditions offered to them are interesting, in particular, English-language programs really attract foreigners. That is, they want to get an education that is recognized in the world.

Who are foreign students in Ukraine?

Foreigners in Ukraine can study at 185 universities. The largest number of students in Ukraine are from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, India, Nigeria, Morocco, Georgia, Jordan, Iraq, China, Uzbekistan, and others. Most foreigners study at universities in Kharkiv, Kyiv, and Odesa.

The most popular majors among foreign students:

  • Medical specialties 30%
  • Management 6.51%
  • Dentistry 5.38%
  • Finance and credit 5.29%.

According to the QS World University Rankings-2023, as many as 11 Ukrainian universities were included this year, which is three more than last year. Next, about which Ukrainian universities are the best in 2022, what specialties are there, and how much tuition costs.

TOP-10 Ukrainian universities

Karazin Kharkiv National University

Karazin Kharkiv National University

According to QS World University Rankings, Kharkiv University named after V. Karazin took 541-550 position, which is slightly worse than the previous year, when it had 511-520 place.

Founded in 1805, Karazin University is one of the oldest universities in Eastern Europe and currently has 17 faculties, namely:

  • biological;
  • geology, geography, recreation, and tourism;
  • economic;
  • foreign languages;
  • historical;
  • computer sciences;
  • mathematics and computer science;
  • International economic relations and tourism business;
  • medical;
  • psychology;
  • radio physics, biomedical electronics, and computer systems;
  • sociological;
  • physical;
  • philological;
  • philosophical;
  • chemical;
  • legal.

The university also has 7 educational and scientific institutes, among which are the “Karazin School of Business”, the Institute of Ecology, Physics and Technology, Computer Physics and Energy, etc.

Currently, the website does not have updated data on the cost of education for bachelor’s and master’s degree holders, however, in the 2020 — 2021 academic year, the amount for full-time students was approximately UAH 12,000 — 25,000 for bachelor’s degrees and UAH 16,000 — 28,000 thousand hryvnias for the master’s degree (around $500-$1000).

National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”

Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute

The second place in our rating was taken by the National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, which ranks 651-700 in the world. The university remained at the same level as last year but overtook Kyiv National University named after Taras Shevchenko.

The university, which was founded in 1885, is the founder of six currently known universities, including the National Aerospace University “Kharkiv Aviation Institute”, Kharkiv National Technical University of Radio Electronics, Kharkiv State University of Construction and Architecture, East Ukrainian National University, Sumy State University. Currently, it is possible to obtain engineering and technical, IT, social and humanitarian, and business education at KhPI. The university has a military institute of tank troops; an educational and scientific institute of energy; an Institute of Electronics and Electromechanics; mechanical engineering and transport; computer modeling; applied physics and mathematics; chemical technologies and engineering; economics, management, and international business; medical institute; Institute of Social and Humanitarian Technologies; computer sciences and information technologies, etc.

The cost of studying at “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”

As for the cost of education, in the 2022 — 2023 academic year it reaches UAH 19,960 — 33,520 and UAH 11,760 — 18,020 for full-time and part-time bachelor’s degrees, respectively, and UAH 24,700 — 39,380 for full-time master’s degrees and 14 780 — 21,460 UAH for correspondence education.

Kyiv National University named after Taras Shevchenko

Kyiv National University named after Taras Shevchenko

The third place in our rating is occupied by the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, which is ranked 651-700 in the world, having worsened its position last year from 601-650.

KNU, founded in 1834, is one of the leading universities in Ukraine and often ranks first in national rankings. Currently, 13 faculties work here: geography, economics, history, information technology, computer science and cybernetics, mechanics and mathematics, sociology, psychology, radiophysics, electronics and computer systems, physics, philosophy, chemistry, and law. The university also has 8 educational institutes:

  • military;
  • high technologies;
  • journalism;
  • international relations;
  • postgraduate education;
  • philology;
  • Department of State Security of Ukraine, etc.

The cost of studying at KNU named after Taras Shevchenko

The cost of studying at the university in the 2022 — 2023 academic year ranges from UAH 31,800 to UAH 58,800 for a full-time bachelor’s degree and from UAH 23,000 to UAH 35,700 for a correspondence course. As for the master’s degree, the cost of education reaches UAH 36,200 – 63,800 for full-time and UAH 25,500 – 38,200 for correspondence form of education.

Kyiv Polytechnic Institute named after Igor Sikorsky

Kyiv Polytechnic Institute named after Igor Sikorsky

National Technical University “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute named after Ihor Sikorsky” took fourth place in our ranking, while in the world ranking it was ranked 701-750, just like last year.

The university, which was founded in 1898, is among the 4% of the best universities in the world according to the QS and Webometrics international rankings. KPI has 9 educational and scientific institutes, including publishing and printing; aerospace technologies; nuclear and thermal energy; energy saving and energy management; materials science and welding named after E.O. Paton; applied system analysis; telecommunication systems; mechanical engineering and physical and technical institutes, as well as the Institute of Special Communication and Information Protection.

KPI also has 14 faculties, namely:

  • engineering and chemical;
  • instrument building;
  • radio engineering;
  • biomedical engineering;
  • biotechnology and biotechniques;
  • electrical engineering and automation;
  • informatics and computer technology;
  • linguistics;
  • management and marketing;
  • physical and mathematical;
  • applied mathematics;
  • sociology and law;
  • chemical and technological.

The cost of studying at KPI

The cost of undergraduate studies this year ranges from UAH 16,600 to UAH 43,800 for full-time studies and from UAH 11,300 to 25,000 for extramural studies. As for the master’s degree, the cost is UAH 20,200-45,000 for full-time courses and UAH 11,300-35,000 for correspondence form of education.

Lviv Polytechnic National University

Lviv Polytechnic National University

“Lviv Polytechnic” took fifth place in our ranking with indicators of 801 — 1000th place in the world, just like last year. The establishment is the oldest technical educational institution in Ukraine — its history begins in 1816, and now it has 19 institutes, including:

  • administration and postgraduate education;
  • architecture and design;
  • construction and engineering systems;
  • geodesy;
  • humanities and social sciences;
  • public administration;
  • economics and management;
  • energy and management systems;
  • computer sciences and information technologies;
  • computer technologies, automation, and metrology;
  • mechanical engineering and transport;
  • entrepreneurship and promising technologies;
  • law, psychology, and innovative education;
  • applied mathematics and fundamental sciences;
  • telecommunications, radio electronics, and electronic equipment;
  • chemistry and chemical technologies.

The cost of studying at Lviv Polytechnic

The cost of full-time tuition for a bachelor’s ranges from 15,500 to 45,000 UAH and from 10,500 to 27,000 UAH per year for extramural studies. As for masters, the price for full-time education ranges from 22,500 to 50,000 UAH and from 13,500 to 27,000 UAH for correspondence.

Sumy State University

Sumy State University

Sumy State University, like Lviv Polytechnic, was ranked 801-1000 in the QS World University Rankings, but it worsened last year’s performance when it was in the seventh hundred.

The university, which was founded in 1948, currently has three educational and scientific institutes, three faculties, professional colleges, and other divisions. In particular, you can enter the educational and scientific institute of business, economics, and management; rights; medical institute, as well as the faculty of foreign philology and social communications; of electronics and information technologies and technical systems, as well as the faculty of energy-efficient technologies.

The cost of studying at Sumy State University

The cost of full-time education ranges from UAH 9,645 to UAH 23,305, and correspondence education costs from UAH 4,290 to UAH 8,800.

Lviv Ivan Franko National University

Lviv Ivan Franko National University

Lviv National University named after Ivan Franko was founded in 1661 and is the oldest in Ukraine, last year, it was located on the 1001-1200 steps of the world ranking. Currently, the university has a Pedagogical College and 19 faculties, namely:

  • biological;
  • geographical;
  • geological;
  • economic;
  • electronics and computer technologies;
  • journalism;
  • foreign languages;
  • historical;
  • culture and arts;
  • mechanical and mathematical;
  • international relations;
  • pedagogical education;
  • applied mathematics and informatics;
  • financial and business management;
  • physical;
  • philological;
  • philosophical;
  • chemical;
  • legal.

The cost of studying at LNU named after Ivan Franko

The cost of tuition in 2022 — 2023 for a bachelor’s degree is from UAH 26,006 to UAH 42,081 for full-time education and from UAH 18,204 to 29,457 for part-time education. As for the master’s degree, the cost of studying for this educational degree is UAH 29,907 – 48,393 for full-time study and UAH 20,935 – 33,875 for correspondence.

Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics

Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics

The Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, whose history begins in 1930, was ranked 1001-1200 in the QS World University Rankings, although last year it was not in the ranking at all. The university is one of the profile universities of Ukraine, in which the main attention is paid to applied information technologies and innovations for the benefit of sustainable development.

Now it has 8 faculties, namely:

  • computer sciences;
  • computer engineering and management;
  • information and analytical technologies and management;
  • information radio technologies and technical protection of information;
  • information communications;
  • automation and computerized technologies;
  • electronic and biomedical engineering.

The cost of studying at KhNUR

The cost of a year of studying for Bachelor degrees is from UAH 14,900 to UAH 17,900 for full-time education and from UAH 9,000 to 13,900 for correspondence education.

National University “Kyiv Mohyla Academy”

National University "Kyiv Mohyla Academy"

National University “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy” is one of the oldest higher education institutions of Ukraine after “Ostroh Academy” and Lviv University, and this year it was placed on the 1001 – 1200 steps of the world ranking, just like last year. NaUKMA is a member of the European Association of Universities. Currently, the university has 27 scientific centers and laboratories, as well as 6 faculties, namely:

  • humanities;
  • economic;
  • social sciences and social technologies;
  • computer science;
  • legal sciences;
  • natural sciences.

The cost of studying at the “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy”

The cost of studying for the Bachelor’s degree in the 2022-2023 academic year ranges from UAH 23,100 to UAH 62,000, and for the Master’s degree – from UAH 21,000 to UAH 61,000.

Odesa National University named after Ilya Mechnikov

Odesa National University named after Ilya Mechnikov

Odesa National University named after Ilya Mechnikov is ranked 1001-1200 in the world ranking. It is important that last year it did not make it to the QS World University Rankings at all. The university is the first higher educational institution in the southern region of Ukraine — it was founded in 1817. He was one of the first in the country to become a member of the European Association of Universities, the World Association of Universities, and the Supervisory Board of Magna Charta.

Now the university has 11 faculties, namely:

  • biological;
  • geological and geographical;
  • economic and legal;
  • Faculty of History and Philosophy;
  • journalism, advertising, and publishing;
  • mathematics, physics, and information technologies;
  • international relations, political science, and sociology;
  • psychology and social work;
  • Romano-Germanic philology;
  • Faculty of Philology;
  • chemistry and pharmacy.


The cost of studying at Ilya Mechnikov National University

The cost of education in the 2021 — 2022 academic year (latest updated data) is UAH 16,628 — 29,990 for a full-time bachelor’s degree and from UAH 9,836 to 18,144 for correspondence, as well as UAH 23,968 — 33,024 and UAH 14,580 — 27,758 — master’s degree on full-time onsite and correspondence forms of education, respectively.


How much does it cost to study in Ukraine?

Studying in Ukraine can be an affordable option for international students. Tuition fee varies depending on the university and program of study but generally range from $1,000 to $3,000 per year. This is significantly lower than tuition fees in many other countries.

Can international students work in Ukraine while studying?

Yes, international students are allowed to work in Ukraine while studying. However, there are certain restrictions and regulations that must be followed.

In order to work in Ukraine as an international student, you must first obtain a student visa or residence permit. This will allow you to legally work in the country for up to 20 hours per week during the academic year and full-time during the summer holidays.

How do you compare which university is the best in Ukraine?

We use qs world university ranking as well as Ukrainian university ranking and student reviews to provide you with top Ukrainian universities.

What are the universities located in Poltava, Ukraine?

Poltava is a city located in the central part of Ukraine and is home to several higher education degrees and universities. The most prominent include: 

  • National Technical University “Poltava Polytechnic” – This university was founded in 1817 and is one of the oldest technical universities in Ukraine. It offers a wide range of programs, including engineering, economics, and law.
  • Poltava State Agrarian Academy
  • Poltava National Medical University
  • Poltava State Pedagogical University
  • Poltava University of Economics and Trade, etc.

What is the best university in Sumy, Ukraine?

Sumy State University (SSU) is one of the best universities in Ukraine for international students. Located in the city of Sumy, SSU is a public university that was founded in 1948 and has since become one of the leading higher education institutions in the country.

The university offers a wide range of degree programs across its 11 faculties, including economics, law, engineering, medicine, and other education. 

What are the cheap universities and top in computer science in Ukraine?

You can see the price range of tuition fees in our list, however, the best in computer science and engineering is the National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” (KPI) in Ukraine. It offers a range of undergraduate and graduate programs in computer science, including artificial intelligence, software engineering, information systems, and more. The tuition fees are quite affordable compared to other universities in Europe.

What is the highest education level in Ukraine?

Ukraine is a country with a long and rich history of higher education. It is home to some of the oldest universities in Europe, such as Kyiv National University (founded in 1834) and Lviv National University (founded in 1661).

The highest level of education in Ukraine is the Doctoral Degree, which requires at least three years of study beyond a Master’s Degree. To obtain a Doctoral Degree, students must complete a dissertation and pass an oral examination.